Application perspective of the hottest polyamide

2022-08-24
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Application perspective of polyamide

polyamide ranks third in engineering plastics in quantity and second in production value. The main applications in Western Europe are in the automotive structure, electrical and electronic and packaging industries

in engineering thermoplastics, polyamide has formed the largest product group due to the largest number of derivatives. Their performance is being continuously developed according to the following factors:

◆ improve processing performance

◆ improve toughness through elastomer

◆ change the mechanical properties through new reinforcing agents

◆ improve heat resistance and weather resistance

◆ develop flame retardant varieties

consumption

from 1995 to 1998, the average growth rate was%/year. However, various regions have developed quite different since 1995. 91 high molecular waterproof materials expand rubber samples when encountering water. Japan's growth is below the average level, Europe and North America are at the average level, while sales in the rest of the world and the Far East (excluding Japan) are above the average level. The annual consumption of PA plastic in Western Europe is about 600000 tons. About 45% of them are PA6, 45% o PA66, and the rest are PA11, PA12 and other copolyamides and polyamides

semi aromatic polyamide has been welcomed to a certain extent in the market. These materials can withstand extreme mechanical and thermal loads, as well as strict medium exposure, and are ideal for applications where PA66 is not completely suitable

automotive structural parts

pa material consumption is the highest in the automotive industry (530000 tons in the world, 190000 tons in Western Europe). In the course of decades, polyamide has been successfully driving metals out of many applications. The reasons for this success are the same: the weight of PA is light, the function of Shanghai Tianma's on cell products and Wuhan Tianma's in cell products have higher energy productivity, and the cost is lower, which makes PA have design advantages

consider the precautions and characteristics of rubber tensile strength testing machine. The efforts to replace PA with metal (such as new magnesium alloy) have not been successful, because of the problems of cost and process engineering. Cheaper materials such as polypropylene (PP) only succeed in replacing PA in some individual applications, in which the requirements for thermal and mechanical properties are reduced

in the foreseeable future, the most important application fields of PA in the automotive industry will be:

◆ airway and fuel mixing (intake manifold, fuel pipeline, throttle valve, inflation pipe)

◆ cooling circuit (water tank, fan impeller, water pipe, thermostat housing)

◆ oil circuit (oil filter cover, oil tank)

◆ housing (engine housing, cylinder cover)

◆ pedal (clutch and accelerator pedal)

◆ airbag shell

◆ structural parts (front end)

◆ bearing retainer (ball bearing and anti-wear bearing)

◆ hydraulic system (oil cylinder, pressure pipeline)

◆ reflector shell

◆ wheel trim edge

◆ roof frame

◆ automotive electrical parts (shell, cable conduit, cable connector)

by combining several functional components and modules that do not affect users' use, extra cost savings can be achieved. Unnecessary connections and fixings may not be used, which reduces the assembly cost

Figure 1 the front end of focus in Ford is also composed of PA

Figure 1 shows a new example from the field of structural components. The easy to install front end of the car is composed of a hot formed porous metal plate, which is sealed with glass fiber reinforced PA without any adhesive

semi aromatic PA components are currently used in cooling water circuits because of their superior oil resistance. Semi aromatic PA is also used as silencer in turbocharger

electrical and electronic

polyamide components play an important role in modern electrical and electronic industry. This is because PA combines superior fire protection characteristics, balanced mechanical properties and powerful thermal properties. More stringent safety requirements can only be met by special flame retardant grades. Criticism of brominated compounds used primarily for this purpose is increasing. These PA materials are usually difficult to process. Their high density leads to high volume unit price and poor arc track resistance. The smoke produced during combustion or smoldering is strong and corrosive. Bromine free alternatives - for example, with flame retardants based on red phosphorus or organic nitrogen compounds, the results have been good for many years. For many raw material suppliers, the current development goal is to produce an easy to process, bromine free flame retardant containing reinforced PA (Figure 2), which can meet the V-5 level requirements of UL94, while ensuring mechanical properties and easy coloring. Another requirement that is now increasingly specified is the markability with nd:yag lasers

sometimes special welding technology requires PA material, which can withstand the temperature above 260 ℃ in a short time without any obvious shape changes, such as PA46 and semi aromatic PA

pa will continue to find a breakthrough in application. Its technical characteristics make it possible to have higher functionality, more attractive design and reduced cost. It can be used as a substitute for thermosetting materials (such as in automotive circuit breakers and short-circuit switches) and metals (such as arc control devices)

the typical application fields of PA in the electrical and electronic industry are:

◆ industrial switching devices (engine switches, contactors)

◆ household appliances (main switch, auxiliary switch, coil frame)

◆ electrical installation (automatic circuit breaker, short-circuit switch)

◆ automotive electrical appliances (shell and sensor of electronic system)

◆ terminal block

◆ socket

◆ electric tools (shell)

packaging

in the packaging industry, PA is mainly used as a barrier layer for multilayer films and containers. The application of full PA is relatively few. It has composite and laminated films, using PA6 and copolyamide containing PA6 as the main component. The main application fields of these packaging materials include food, such as meat, sausage, cheese, peanuts and fish, where PA contributes high mechanical properties and good oxygen isolation quality. The barrier effect can be further improved by adding nano filler or amorphous PA, or by biaxially stretching film. In fact, this is the reason why PA6 has achieved market success in the field of intestinal food packaging. The multi-layer film stretched here also has good prospects

monolayers have entered the non food field, such as stripping films as sheet forming compounds, thermally stable films in aircraft structures, and breathable and dust-free barrier films on roofs

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